This is class 107's biology blog. Please refrain from using inappropriate terms. Instead, use proper ENGLISH.

Monday, February 22, 2010


Sunday, February 21, 2010

Thrombocytopenia Groupwork,

Sorry about the submission time of this post

Saturday, February 20, 2010

Septicemia (Jun Jie's group)

What? It is an infection that is caused by bacteria contaminating a person’s blood otherwise known as blood poisoning. There are many things that can lead to septicemia such as, cuts which are infected.

How? Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) is a global initiative to bring together professional organizations in reducing mortality from sepsis. The purpose of the SSC is to create an international collaborative effort to improve the treatment of sepsis and reduce the high mortality rate associated with the condition. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement have teamed up to achieve a 25 percent reduction in sepsis mortality by 2009.

How? treatment

Treatments for Septicemia
The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Septicemia includes the following list. Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans.
Antibiotics - often in large doses
Intravenous antibiotics
Broad-spectrum antibiotics
Specific antibiotics - one the causative agent has been identified.
Intensive care
Life support measures
Treatment of any underlying condition
Supportive therapy

How does this affect the blood component?

Decrease or increase in white blood cells.
Positive blood culture (presence of foreign microorganism).
Platelet count drops.
Blood pressure increases
Heart beat elevates

Alternative Treatments for Septicemia
Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed as possibly helpful for Septicemia may include:
Anthracinum homeopathic remedy
Pyrogenium homeopathic remedy
Arsenicum homeopathic remedy
Carbo vegetabilis homeopathic remedy
Crotalus horridus homeopathic remedy

Why are there so many diseases with "sepsis," "septic," "septicemia," or "blood poisoning" in their name?
Unfortunately, both medical personnel and laypeople have used these terms interchangeably and then linked them to either a particular organism (usually bacterial) that can cause sepsis or to a site in the body in which an infection originates that leads to sepsis as described above. For example, meningococcal sepsis, meningococcal septicemia, septic meningitis, and meningococcal blood poisoning can refer to the same entity; an infection of the patient by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis that has spread from the meninges (brain membranes) to the bloodstream, resulting in the patient having at least two of the four criteria outlined above for sepsis. Common examples of a body site used in the same way are puerperal sepsis, puerperal septicemia, puerperal or childbirth blood poisoning, and maternal septicemia postpartum. All four terms represent infection of the female reproductive system that leads to sepsis criteria for the patient. The infectious agent is not described when the body site is linked to "sepsis" or the other terms. The following is a short partial list of both organism and organ system (and organ-related) terms that are seen in both the lay and medical literature:
MRSA sepsis: sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

VRE sepsis: sepsis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species of bacteria

urosepsis: sepsis originating from a urinary tract infection

wound sepsis: sepsis originating from an infection of a wound

neonatal sepsis or septicemia: sepsis seen in newborns, usually in the first four weeks after birth

septic abortion: an abortion due to infection with sepsis in the mother
There are many more examples of linking terms to sepsis (for example, AIDS, tattoo, spider bite). Occasionally, terms like hemorrhagic septicemia are used to describe a symptom (internal bleeding) that occurs with sepsis. The trend in medicine currently is to decrease the use of the terms septicemia and blood poisoning in favor of the terms sepsis or septic, because sepsis is defined most concisely.

What? function of the blood component/ structure in circulatory system?

White blood cells - Involve in the production of Antibodies or Phagocytosis.
Platelet - Play a role in the clotting of blood.
Blood pressure and heart beat (speed) - Bring oxygen and food materials to the cells at a normal rate.

Team members: Yeo Jun Jie
Lim Hao Yang
Darius Low
Lim Jing Jie
Emily Wu
Sun Jie Min

Leukopenia (Sean Phua's Group)

Group 1: Sean Phua, Elgin Patt, Neo Wei Hong, Liau Zheng En, Shawn Lim
What is the cause of the disease?
Ans: The reduction of white blood cells in the human body can be caused by cancer treatment like chemotherapy or radiation therapy
as malignant cells overwhelm the bone marrow. Some illness like influenza or Hodgkin's lyphoma (a type of cancer that originates from lymphocytes) can also cause the reduction of white blood cells. Some medications like immunosuppresive drugs, such as sirolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine can also cause leukopenia. Leukopenia increases the chance of the patient getting an infection.

ii. How does the component of blood/ blood vessel affected in the disease?
Pseudoleukopenia can develop upon the onset of infection. The leukocytes are marginalized in the blood vessels so that they can scan for the site of infection. This means that even though there is increased white blood cell production, it will appear as though the white blood cell count is low from a blood sample, since the blood sample is of core blood and does not include the marginalized leukocytes.

iii. What is the function of the blood component/ structure in circulatory system?
White blood cells, or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system that defend the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.

v. How will the absence of the blood component / structure affect the health of the patient?
With the decrease of white blood cells, the immune system becomes weak.
With a weakened immune system, a person becomes much more vulnerable to even relatively minor infections.

Thrombocytopenia Groupwork

What is it?
Thrombocytopenia,also called -paenia or thrombopenia for short,is a condition where there are insufficient numbers of platelets in the body.

What causes it?
1)Lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid
2)Leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome
3)Decreased production of thrombopoietin by the liver caused by liver failure
4)Sepsis,systemic viral or bacterial infection
5)Dengue fever,through direct infection of bone marrow megakaryocytes as well as immunological shortened platelet survival
Hereditary syndromes:
6)Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT)
7)Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome
8)Fanconi anemia
9)Bernard-soulier syndrome, associated with large platelets
10)May Hegglin anomaly, the combination of thrombocytopenia, pale-blue leuckocyte inclusions, and giant platelets
11)Grey platelet syndrome
12)Alport syndrome

1)Sometimes,there may be bruising,particularly purpura in the forearms,nosebleeds and/or bleeding gums.
2)Sudden onset of petechiae(a small or purple spot caused by bleeding into the skin) and ecchymoses(a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath,typically caused by bruising)
3)Malaise,fatigue and general weakness(with or without accompanying blood loss)
4)Bleeding(petechiae or ecchymoses),along with slow,continuous bleeding from any injuries or wounds
5)Adults may have large,blood-filled bullae(a bubble-like cavity filled with air or fluid) in the mouth
6)Platelet count between 30 000 and 50 000/mm3:bruising with minor trauma
7)Between 15 000 and 30 000/mm3:spontaneous bruising will be seen(mostly on the arms and legs)

Thrombocytopenia cures:
1)Ensuring that the low platelet count is not due to a secondary process is necessary
2)Ensuring that the other cell types like red blood cells and white blood cells are not also suppressed is also important
3)Laboratory tests might include:
Full blood count
Liver enzymes
Renal function
Vitamin B12 levels
Folic acid levels
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Peripheral blood smear
4)If the cause for low platelet count is unclear,bone marrow biopsy is often undertaken,to see if the low platelet count is due due to either decreased production or peripheral destruction
5)Drug-induced: removal of the offending agents should correct the condition

6)Corticosteroids: used to increase platelet production.

7)Lithium carbonate or folate: used to stimulate the bone marrow production of platelets

8)Platelet transfusions: used to stop episodic abnormal bleeding caused by a low platelet count

(if platelet destruction results from an immune disorder, platelet infusions may have only a minimal effect and may be reserved for life-threatening bleeding.)

9)Splenectomy: may be necessary to correct thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction (A splenectomy should significantly reduce platelet destruction because the spleen acts as the primary site of platelet removal and antibody production.)

10)(Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) may require high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) will probably require large-volume plasmapheresis (plasma exchange).)

Group Members:

Dionne Choo Tsi Min

Chua Zong Wei

Michelle Loh Wan Ping

Tam Wai Hang

Tang Wen Yue

Coronary heart disease (Elgin's Group)

Q i. What is the cause of the disease?
A:Coronary disease (or coronary heart disease) refers to the failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. It is already the most common form of disease affecting the heart and an important cause of premature death in Europe, the Baltic states, Russia, North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. It has been predicted that all regions of the world will be affected by 2020.
It is most commonly equated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but coronary disease can be due to other causes, such as coronary vasospasm. It is possible for the stenosisto be caused by the spasm.
Q ii. How does the component of blood/ blood vessel affected in the disease?
A:How does the component of blood/ blood vessel affected in the disease?
When plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the heart doesn't get the blood it needs to work well. Over time, this can weaken or damage the heart. If a plaque tears, the body tries to fix the tear by forming a blood clot around it. The clot can block blood flow to the heart and cause a heart attack.
Q iii: What is the function of the blood component/ structure in circulatory system?
A: Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood to function, and oxygen-depleted blood must be carried away. The coronary arteries consist of two main arteries: the right and left coronary arteries. The left coronary artery system branches into the circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery.

Since coronary arteries deliver blood to the heart muscle, any coronary artery disorder or disease can have serious implications by reducing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, which may lead to a heart attack and possibly death. Atherosclerosis (a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery causing it to narrow or become blocked) is the most common cause of heart disease.
Q iv: How does this blood component/ structure differ from the rest in the circulatory system?
A: The cells are crescent-shaped, shaped like the sickle used to cut wheat, are stiff and sticky and tend to form clumps and get stuck in the blood vessels.It contains abnormal haemoglobin rather than the normal haemoglobin. Causes: pain episodes,strokes,increased infections,leg ulcers,bone damage,yellow eyes or jaundice,early gallstones,lung blockage,kidney damage and loss of water in urine,painful erections in men(sequestration),eye damage,low red blood cell counts (anemia) & delayed growth
Q v: How will the absence of the blood component / structure affect the health of the patient?
A: When these hard and pointed red cells go through the small blood tube, they clog the flow and break apart. This may cause pain, damage and a low blood count, or anemia. Abnormal haemoglibin: They stick together when it delivers oxygen to the body’s tissues. These clumps of haemoglobin are like liquid fibers.It is formed when there is a mutation, caused by a single nucleotide effecting the change in the β-globin (.composed of five genes located on a short region of chromosome 11, responsible for the creation of the beta parts (roughly half) of the oxygen transport protein Hemoglobin) , resulting in the substitution of valine for glutamic acid as the sixth amino acid of β-globin.
Q vi: How technology is used to facilitate the analysis of one’s state of health and improve one’s lifestyle?
A: In order for patient preferences to be effectively used in the delivery of health care, it is important that patients be able to formulate and express preferences, that these judgments be made known to the clinician at the time of care, and that these statements meaningfully inform care activities. Decision theory and health informatics offer promising strategies for eliciting subjective values and making them accessible in a clinical encounter in a manner that drives health choices. Computer-based elicitation and reporting tools are proving acceptable to patients and clinicians alike. It is time for the informatics community to turn their attention toward building computer-based applications that support clinicians in the complex cognitive process of integrating patient preferences with scientific knowledge, clinical practice guidelines, and the realities of contemporary health care.
Q vii: How technology is used to save lives with respect to the disease investigated?
A: Ice slurry is an equal mix of ultra-small (equivalent to the diameter of a human hair) ice particles and a salt water liquid carrier. It is a mixture of ice and salt water that may be injected into the lungs for rapid cooling to sustain the heart and brain cells after cardiac arrests, thus "freezing" the body until the patient can recieve medical help.

NOTE: the questions are not completed yet, I am just inputting all the answers that I have so far into the blog. I will edit this pose when I get the answers.

Thursday, February 18, 2010

Online Quiz (For Practice)

Online quiz address:


Students to login in this format: CLASS/ REGISTER NUMBER and FULL NAME.

Example: 107/21 YEO JUN JIE

Please look through the answers after completion.

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

1. Spend some time to think of the following questions using Questioning Techniques after watching the video:

i. What is the cause of the disease?

ii. How does the component of blood/ blood vessel affected in the disease?

iii. What is the function of the blood component/ structure in circulatory system?

iv. How does this blood component/ structure differ from the rest in the circulatory system?

v. How will the absence of the blood component / structure affect the health of the patient?

vi. How technology is used to facilitate the analysis of one’s state of health and improve one’s lifestyle?

vii. How technology is used to save lives with respect to the disease investigated?

We will be discussing the following diseases in the next lesson (Friday): Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Coronary Heart Disease & Septicemia. You can do some research and read in advance to facilitate the discussion :) You can use the above questions to guide your research and readings.

Monday, February 8, 2010

Class Test Reflection 1: Cells

Your reflections should describe your strengths and weaknesses in this test (Competency areas: Knowledge, Understanding & Application). Use specific examples from the questions to highlight these areas. Project into the future as to how you plan to improve this topic and each of these competency areas.

Please follow this format:
i) Strengths: . . .
ii) Weaknesses: . . .
iii) Areas to improve: . . .
Provide some questions as examples.

Note: Please use scholarly language with no spelling or grammatical errors. Avoid slang or casual conversational writing.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Food Tests!

Reducing sugar/Benedict's Test

Protein/Biuret Test

Fats/Emulsion Test

Games For Digestion (Crossword, Word Search & Jigsaw)

Try playing & learning at the same time :)